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Introducing DiLeuPMP, a multiplexed isobaric labeling method

Glycosylation plays an important role in how the human body functions, including cell recognition, signaling, and immune response. While efforts have been devoted to the analysis of N-glycans, high-throughput quantitative analysis of O-glycans is underexplored. In this study, a multiplexed isobaric labeling method, DiLeuPMP, is introduced. This method combines the release and labeling of O-glycans in one step and achieves accurate MS2-based relative quantification. This method provides an effective and reliable approach for the profiling and high-throughput quantitative analysis of O-glycans in complex samples.

Read the article: DiLeuPMP: a multiplexed isobaric labeling method for quantitative analysis of O-glycans

Biologically relevant proteins in Alzheimer’s Disease

Proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) holds great promise in understanding the progression of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). As one of the primary reservoirs of neuronal biomolecules, CSF provides a window into the biochemical and cellular aspects of the neurological environment. Using mass spectrometry technologies, McKetney et. al. quantified 700 proteins across 10 pairs of age- and sex-matched participants. Using the paired structure, they identified a small group of biologically relevant proteins that show substantial changes in abundance between normal and AD participants. These findings suggest the utility of fractionating a single sample and using matching to increase proteomic depth in CSF.

Read the article: Pilot Proteomic Analysis of Cerebrospinal Fluid in Alzheimer’s Disease. Proteomics Clinical Applications.

Achieving a simplified, multi-omics workflow

An article by Yuchen He et. al. titled “Multi-omic Single-Shot Technology for Integrated Proteome and Lipidome Analysis” was recently published as one of the cover stories in Analytical Chemistry.

This article describes a technology to achieve broad and deep coverage of multiple molecular classes simultaneously through Multi-omics (proteome, lipidome, and metabolome) single-shot technology (MOST), requiring only one column, one LC-MS instrument, and a simplified workflow.

Adding FAIMS to the phosphoproteomic workflow

Mass spectrometry is the premier tool for identifying and quantifying protein phosphorylation on a global scale. Analysis of phosphopeptides requires enrichment, and even after the samples remain highly complex and exhibit a broad dynamic range of abundance. A recent publication by Muehlbauer et. al. found that incorporating a commercialized aerodynamic high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) device into the phosphoproteomic workflow was a valuable addition with greater benefits emerging from longer analyses and higher amounts of material.

Read the article, Global Phosphoproteome Analysis Using High-Field Asymmetric Waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry on a Hybrid Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer.

Recent publication highlights phosphoproteome analysis using FAIMS

Mass spectrometry is the premier tool for identifying and quantifying protein phosphorylation. Analysis of phosphopeptides requires enrichment, and even after that step, the samples remain highly complex and exhibit broad dynamic range of abundance. In a recent publication, Muehlbauer et al. describe a method for integrating a high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) device into the workflow. The data collected with FAIMS yielded a 26% increase in total reproducible measurements, leading researchers to conclude that the new FAIMS technology is a valuable addition to any phosphoproteomic workflow, with greater benefits emerging from longer analyses and higher amounts of material.

Read the publication here: Global Phosphoproteome Analysis Using High-Field Asymmetric Waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry on a Hybrid Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer

LipidGenie, a genome-guided lipid identification tool

Despite the crucial roles of lipids in metabolism, we are still in the early stages of annotating lipid species and their genetic basis. To help in this work, a team of researchers led by Vanessa Linke recently developed LipidGenie, an interactive, query-able resource for lipid identification. The research team used high-resolution liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry to quantify 3,283 molecular features from the liver and plasma of outbred mice. These features were then mapped to 5,622 lipid quantitative trait loci, compiled and cross-referenced to the human genome.

Download the software and read the manuscript.

Relish protein level affects secondary traumatic brain injuries

Brain trauma is caused by both primary and secondary injuries. Primary injuries result from the physical damage to the brain, and secondary injuries from the bodies’ responses to those injuries. A recent publication in Genetics by Swanson et al. describes using mass spectrometry to investigate secondary injuries in the Relish (Rel) protein level in fly heads after a primary brain injury. They found changes in Rel levels were necessary for secondary traumatic brain injuries to occur.

Fast, unbiased proteome quantification without LC

Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) delivers sensitive peptide analysis for proteomics but requires extensive analysis time, reducing productivity. A recent paper by Meyer et al. titled “Quantitative shotgun proteome analysis by direct infusion” demonstrated that gas-phase peptide separation using direct infusion–shotgun proteome analysis enabled fast, unbiased proteome quantification without LC, and offered an approach to boost throughput, critical to studies that require analysis of thousands of proteomes.

Gut microbiome may play a role in brain functions and behaviors

Gut microbiota can regulate host physiological and pathological status through gut–brain communications or pathways. However, the impact of the gut microbiome on the proteins involved in regulating brain functions and behaviors is still not clearly understood. In a recent publication by Liu et al., the author describes a combined label-free and 10-plex DiLeu-based quantitative method that enabled a comprehensive profiling of gut microbiome that induced dynamic changes, suggesting that the gut microbiome might mediate a range of behavioral changes, brain development, and learning and memory through these neuropeptides and proteins.

Liu R et al. Integrated Label-Free and 10-plex DiLeu Isobaric Tag Quantitative Methods for Profiling Changes in the Mouse Hypothalamic Neuropeptidome and Proteome: Assessment of the Impact of the Gut Microbiome. Analytical Chemistry.

Argonaut enables collaborative data visualization and exploration

Argonaut is an online platform for collaborative exploration of multi-omic data described in this recent publication by Brademan et al.

Through this platform, information is presented using intuitive, interactive visualizations in a code-free environment, empowering both experts and non-experts worldwide to easily interact and share data.

The Argonaut platform aims to overcome the hurdles of working with large datasets and lower the barrier to entry for biological and clinical collaborators.

This and other software tools can be found here.